Maraging Steels

Maraging steels (a portmanteau of martensitic and aging) are steels (iron alloys) which are known for possessing superior strength and toughness without losing malleability, although they cannot hold a good cutting edge. Aging refers to the extended heat-treatment process. These steels are a special class of low-carbon ultra-high-strength steels which derive their strength not from carbon, but from precipitation of inter-metallic compounds. The principal alloying element is 15 to 25 wt.% nickel. Secondary alloying elements are added to produce intermetallic precipitates, which include cobalt,molybdenum, and titanium. Original development was carried out on 20 and 25 wt.% Ni steels to which small additions of Al, Ti, and Nb were made.

The common, non-stainless grades contain 17–19 wt.% nickel, 8–12 wt.% cobalt, 3–5 wt.% molybdenum, and 0.2–1.6 wt.% titanium. Addition of chromium produces stainless grades resistant to corrosion. This also indirectly increases hardenability as they require less nickel: high-chromium, high-nickel steels are generally austenitic and unable to transform to martensite when heat treated, while lower-nickel steels can transform to martensite. Alternative variants of Ni-reduced maraging steels are based on alloys of Fe and Mn plus minor additions of Al, Ni, and Ti where compositions between Fe-9wt.% Mn to Fe-15wt.% Mn have been used. The Mn has a similar effect as Ni, i.e. it stabilizes the austenite phase. Hence, depending on their Mn content, Fe-Mn maraging steels can be fully martensitic after quenching them from the high temperature austenite phase or they can contain retained austenite. The latter effect enables the design of maraging-TRIP steels where TRIP stands for Transformation-Induced-Plasticity.

Maraging 250/Maraging C250/Vascomax C250™ UNS K92890

Sheet/Plate
Round Bar/Wire
AMS 6520
AMS 6512, MIL-S-46850, ASTM A538

Maraging 300/Maraging C300/Vascomax C300™ UNS K93120

Sheet/Plate
Round Bar/Wire
AMS 6521
AMS 6514, MIL-S-46850, ASTM A538

Maraging 350/Maraging C350/Vascomax C350™

Sheet/Plate
Round Bar/Wire
MIL-S-46850
MIL-S-46850

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